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A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits. BGA packages are used to permanently mount devices such as microprocessors. A BGA can provide more interconnection pins than can be put on a dual in-line or flat package, each pin is provided with a solder ball. All connections are distributed in a uniform surface grid or matrix on the component. The whole bottom surface of the device can be used instead of just the perimeter.

The leads are also on average shorter than with a perimeter-only type, leading to better performance at high speeds.

Soldering of BGA devices requires precise control and is usually done by automated processes. BGA devices are not suitable for socket mounting.

The advantage of BGA:

1. Efficient use of PCB space. Using BGA packages means fewer component involvement and smaller footprints, it is also help to save space for custom PCBs, which greatly increases the effectiveness of PCB space.

2. Improve thermal and electrical performance. Due to small size of PCB base on BGA package, heat dissipation is more easily. When silicon wafer is mounted on top, most heat can be transmitted down to the ball grid. When silicon wafer is mounted on the bottom, the backside of the silicon wafer connect to the top of the package and is considered to be one of the best heat dissipation methods. The BGA package has no pins that can be bent and broken, which makes it stable enough to ensure large-scale electrical performance.

3. Improve manufacturing profit based on welding improvement. Most BGA package pads are large, which makes large area soldering easier and more convenient. As a result, the manufacturing speed of PCB increased with the increase of manufacturing yield. In addition, when using larger pads, it is easily to re-work.

4. Less damage . BGA leads consist of solid solder balls that are not easily damaged during operation.

5. Reduce costs. All advantages shown above help to reduce costs. Efficient use of PCB space provides opportunities to save material, while improving thermoelectric performance helps ensure the quality of electronic components and reduce defects.

PCBWay BGA technology:

According to our prototype factory's production capability, the diameter of BGA pad (round one below) should be at least 0.25mm, the space between copper trace and BGA PAD should be at least 0.15mm, BGA to Pad should be not less 0.15mm(1OZ complete copper thickness),BGA Pad to BGA Pad should be not less 0.35mm.

PCBWay advanced PCB factory can now manufacturing abilities:

The minimum diameter of BGA is 0.2MM (the sample limit can be 0.15MM), the minimum BGA to line is 3MIL (the prototype limit can be 2.5MIL), the BGA spacing limit is 0.4mm, and the conventional 0.5mm

Challenges to the limit are not easy to produce, because the scrap rate is too high, resulting in increased costs.

If you need higher requirement, please make a note.


BGA is too small to suggest the reason for Surface Finish Immersion gold(ENIG):

1. The BGA pad is too small, and the HASL lead free will fall off;

Generally, it is not recommended to HASL lead free for those with BGA, it is easy to solder poorly:

2. The BGA pad is too small, the thickness of the HASL lead free is between 2-40um, there will be a large height difference, which is not conducive to welding. The thickness of the immersion gold is usually between 0.025 and 0.05um, and the production of the pad is flat and beneficial for welding.

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Video:What is BGA package? | PCB Knowledge

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